Glycogen Metabolism (Rattus norvegicus)

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DegradationSynthesisPhosphorylase KinaseGlycolysisSer/Thr Protein Phosphatase 2APpp2r5aGbe1Ugp2Ppp2caGlycogen (n+1)Gsk3bGyg1Pgm1Ppp2r5eGlucose 1-phosphatePygmGlycogenPyglPpp2r3aPhkbPhkg1Phka2Ppp2r4Glucose-1-phosphatePpp2r2cGys1Gys2GYG2Ppp2r2bPpp2r5bGsk3aCALM3Glucose-6-phosphateUDP-glucosePhkg2CALM2Glycogen (n+1)GlucoseGlycogenPygbPpp2r1bUgp2PPP2R3BCALM1Ppp2r2aPhka1AglcAMPPpp2r5cPpp2r1aPpp2r5dPpp2cb


Glycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal muscle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to maintain blood-glucose levels as required to meet the needs of the organism as a whole. In contrast, in muscle, these processes are regulated to meet the energy needs of the muscle itself.

Glycogen synthesis is, unlike its breakdown, endergonic. This means that glycogen synthesis requires the input of energy. Energy for glycogen synthesis comes from UTP, which reacts with glucose-1-phosphate, forming UDP-glucose, in reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Glycogen is synthesized from monomers of UDP-glucose by the enzyme glycogen synthase, which progressively lengthens the glycogen chain with (a1->4) bonded glucose. As glycogen synthase can only lengthen an existing chain, the protein glycogenin is needed to initiate the synthesis of glycogen. The glycogen-branching enzyme, amylo (a1->4) to (a1->6) transglycosylase, catalyzes the transfer of a terminal fragment of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end to the C-6 hydroxyl group of a glucose residue deeper into the interior of the glycogen molecule. The branching enzyme can act upon only a branch having at least 11 residues, and the enzyme may transfer to the same glucose chain or adjacent glucose chains.

Glycogen degradation consists of three steps: (1) the release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen, (2) the remodeling of the glycogen substrate to permit further degradation, and (3) the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate for further metabolism.

Information partly derived from "Biochemistry" by Stryer and Wikipedia.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP500(r21730) with a 72% conversion rate.

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106967view13:42, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
89812view11:48, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
71838view19:44, 18 October 2013MaintBotremoved data source from nodes without identifier
70011view23:40, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
67305view10:34, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'glycogen metabolic pathway' added !
41728view02:39, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35727view23:39, 12 February 2010AlexanderPico
34104view19:21, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
31977view13:10, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
31014view01:06, 30 July 2009MaintBotConverted from Homo sapiens
21017view11:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Glycogen Metabolism]] moved to [[Pathway:WP160]]: Moved to stable identifier
8094view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Rat:Glycogen Metabolism]] moved to [[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Glycogen Metabolism]]: Renaming species
7669view16:08, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7368view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19478view22:20, 22 May 2007M.Ramirezgpml file for [[Rat:Glycogen_Metabolism]]
6552view22:20, 22 May 2007Kdahlquistgpml file for [[Rat:Glycogen_Metabolism]]

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AglGeneProduct362029 (Entrez Gene)
CALM1GeneProduct24242 (Entrez Gene)
CALM2GeneProduct50663 (Entrez Gene)
CALM3GeneProduct24244 (Entrez Gene)
Gbe1GeneProduct288333 (Entrez Gene)
Glucose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001586 (HMDB)
Glycogen (n+1)Metabolite
Gsk3aGeneProduct50686 (Entrez Gene)
Gsk3bGeneProduct84027 (Entrez Gene)
Gyg1GeneProduct81675 (Entrez Gene)
Gys1GeneProduct690987 (Entrez Gene)
Gys2GeneProduct25623 (Entrez Gene)
Pgm1GeneProduct24645 (Entrez Gene)
Phka1GeneProduct64561 (Entrez Gene)
Phka2GeneProduct678739 (Entrez Gene)
PhkbGeneProduct361377 (Entrez Gene)
Phkg1GeneProduct29353 (Entrez Gene)
Phkg2GeneProduct140671 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2caGeneProduct24672 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2cbGeneProduct24673 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r1aGeneProduct117281 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r1bGeneProduct315648 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r2aGeneProduct117104 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r2bGeneProduct60660 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r2cGeneProduct117256 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r3aGeneProduct363122 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r4GeneProduct362102 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5aGeneProduct312754 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5bGeneProduct309179 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5cGeneProduct691318 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5dGeneProduct363193 (Entrez Gene)
Ppp2r5eGeneProduct299147 (Entrez Gene)
PygbGeneProduct25739 (Entrez Gene)
PyglGeneProduct64035 (Entrez Gene)
PygmGeneProduct24701 (Entrez Gene)
UDP-glucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000286 (HMDB)
Ugp2GeneProduct289827 (Entrez Gene)
cAMPMetaboliteHMDB0000058 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

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