Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity (Rattus norvegicus)

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DIETXenobioticsGene expressionDIETABCC2Cyp7a1SteroidsABCB11VdrAbcd2Acetyl CoACholesterolIsoprenoidsCYP3A4Cyp24a1Abcb1LanosterolRetinoic acidCyp26a1Fatty AcidsCyp4b1Cyp7a1Nr1h4Bile Acidsabcg6Cyp2e1CalcitriolRaraPpargCYP3A4Ppara7-DehydrocholesterolOxysterolCyp2b2Cyp7a1Cyp8b1Cyp2cCYP3A4Cyp1a2Abcd3Nr1i3Abca1Nr1i2CYP27B1RargRARBCYP4A11Cyp2cAbcb4Nr1h3Abcg5Abcc3Abca1Abca1Abcg1Abcb1aPpardCyp2cCyp2b2


Description

Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that are activated upon binding to its ligands. Initially, they had been classified as classic endocrine nuclear hormone receptors and orphan receptors. However, further studies have led to the identification of lipid ligands for some of these adopted orphan receptors, which are responsible for lipid metabolism, storage or elimination. One of the characteristics of these receptors is that they act by forming heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR). The receptors include peroxisome proliferators-Activated receptors (PPARs) for fatty acids, liver X receptor (LCR) for oxysterols, Farnesoid X receptors (FXR) for bile acids and steroid xenobiotic receptor/X receptor (SXR/PXR or Nsil2) for xenobiotics. Other orphan receptors also require RXR for its functions are vitamin D receptor (VDR) for vitamin D and retinoic acid receptor (RAR) for retinoid acids, although these receptors are not involved in lipid metabolism. Upon binding to various ligands, three classes of proteins are synthesized including lipid binding proteins, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and cytochrome P450 member proteins which catalyzes lipid anabolism, metabolism and elimination. In addition to lipid metabolism, some members of the cytochrome P450 family genes are responsible for activation of procarcinogens, detoxification of environmental toxins and metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. In particular, CAR, Nsil2 and recently identified VDR are important in up-regulation of these cytochromes. Of all the human cytochrome P450 genes, only a few CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 account for most toxicity effects, specifically CYP3A is responsible for clearing approximately half of the clinically prescribed drugs. For instance, acetaminophen, one of the most commonly used drug, is toxic in high doses due to the activation of CAR and the drugs subsequent conversion to acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) by CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A.

Comments

GenMAPP remarks 
Converted to human by GenMAPP.org
HomologyConvert 
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP299(r21309) with a 74% conversion rate.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

No bibliography


History

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CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
89871view12:38, 6 October 2016MkutmonModified description
79807view16:33, 16 April 2015Mkutmonchanged legend to use graphical lines
71834view19:39, 18 October 2013MaintBotremoved data source from nodes without identifier
69990view22:15, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
67538view11:22, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'lipid metabolic pathway' added !
60550view14:08, 21 March 2013Cizarannotated Calcitriol
60488view15:19, 20 March 2013CizarSpecify description
60487view15:09, 20 March 2013Cizarannotated 7-Dehydrocholesterol
60206view15:52, 14 March 2013SusanSpecify description
47780view05:49, 6 April 2012Khanspersupdated xref
41773view02:42, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35697view23:04, 12 February 2010KhanspersDescription
35696view23:03, 12 February 2010KhanspersModified description
34140view19:32, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
31965view13:06, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30928view00:36, 30 July 2009MaintBotConverted from Homo sapiens
20975view11:30, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity]] moved to [[Pathway:WP139]]: Moved to stable identifier
8294view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Rat:Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity]] moved to [[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Nuclear receptors in lipid metabolism and toxicity]]: Renaming species
7767view16:16, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7383view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
6580view22:20, 22 May 2007S.Burelgpml file for [[Rat:Nuclear_receptors_in_lipid_metabolism_and_toxicity]]

External references

DataNodes

View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
7-DehydrocholesterolMetaboliteHMDB00032 (HMDB)
ABCB11GeneProduct83569 (Entrez Gene)
ABCC2GeneProduct25303 (Entrez Gene)
Abca1GeneProduct313210 (Entrez Gene)
Abcb1GeneProduct170913 (Entrez Gene)
Abcb1aGeneProduct170913 (Entrez Gene)
Abcb4GeneProduct24891 (Entrez Gene)
Abcc3GeneProduct140668 (Entrez Gene)
Abcd2GeneProduct84356 (Entrez Gene)
Abcd3GeneProduct25270 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg1GeneProduct85264 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg5GeneProduct114628 (Entrez Gene)
Acetyl CoAMetabolite
Bile AcidsMetabolite3098 (ChEBI)
CYP27B1GeneProduct114700 (Entrez Gene)
CYP3A4GeneProduct
CYP4A11GeneProduct
CalcitriolMetaboliteHMDB01903 (HMDB)
CholesterolMetaboliteHMDB00067 (HMDB)
Cyp1a2GeneProduct24297 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp24a1GeneProduct25279 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a1GeneProduct154985 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2b2GeneProduct361523 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2cGeneProduct29277 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e1GeneProduct25086 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp4b1GeneProduct24307 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp7a1GeneProduct25428 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp8b1GeneProduct81924 (Entrez Gene)
Fatty AcidsMetabolite35366 (ChEBI)
IsoprenoidsMetabolite24913 (ChEBI)
LanosterolMetaboliteHMDB01251 (HMDB)
Nr1h3GeneProduct58852 (Entrez Gene)
Nr1h4GeneProduct60351 (Entrez Gene) Farnesoid X-activated receptor
Nr1i2GeneProduct84385 (Entrez Gene)
Nr1i3GeneProduct65035 (Entrez Gene)
OxysterolMetabolite
PparaGeneProduct25747 (Entrez Gene)
PpardGeneProduct25682 (Entrez Gene)
PpargGeneProduct25664 (Entrez Gene)
RARBGeneProduct24706 (Entrez Gene)
RaraGeneProduct24705 (Entrez Gene)
RargGeneProduct685072 (Entrez Gene)
Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB01852 (HMDB)
SteroidsMetabolite
VdrGeneProduct24873 (Entrez Gene)
abcg6GeneProduct

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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