Vitamin A and carotenoid metabolism (Canis familiaris)

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2, 6, 17Nuclear receptors11-cis binding proteinRetinal pigment epithelium specificROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium Rhodopsin formationEnterocytePPAR pathwaysRE + dietary lipidsRE + dietary lipidsNucleus???gap junction communication??RA-binding proteinschylomicronLiver/other organs?Cytochrome P450 familyBloodRE + dietary lipidsDietROL-binding proteinsRXRgZeaxanthinall-trans Retinoic acidVitamin A acidARATAstaxanthinCanthaxanthinAbcg5ALDH1A1Retinol dehydrogenasesAWAT2Betacarotenebeta 10' apocorotenalall-trans RetinalRPE6513,14 dehydro RACRABP2Vitamin D3Rdh1211-cis-RetinolRBP79-cis-RetinolRARaAbcg8RDH5Rbp1RBP4Lpl4-oxo-Retinoic acidBCMO1Crabp1BCMO1MAPKBeta-CryptoxanthinScarb1Rdh10Adh1LuteinScarb1RETSATAldh1a39-cis-Retinoic acidBCO2Rdh8Rdh5Rdh12Betacarotene13,14 dehydroretinalNpc1l1RetinalVitamin A aldehydeAll-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolALDH1A1all-transe 4-oxo RADHRS3Cyp26a1ALDH1A2LycopeneRlbp1RetinolVitamin ASult2b1Cd36RXRbAlpha-CaroteneCyp2e111-cis-RetinalRBP29-cis-Retinalall-trans RetinolVitamin ARARbRetinolVitamin ABetacaroteneALDH1A2LratAldh1a3Retinyl esterCyp26b1RARgADH4RXRaRetinyl esterBetacaroteneLratBcmo1ViolaxanthinSult1a11, 3, 5, 7, 14...9, 11, 12, 158, 134, 8, 10


This pathway is about carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism. The initial version was created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. It was used to test a text mining workflow which added some additional entities (see Waagmeester et al. 2009).


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP716(r46094) with a 69% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



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  1. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  2. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC
  3. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  4. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  5. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  6. Waagmeester A, Pezik P, Coort S, Tourniaire F, Evelo C, Rebholz-Schuhmann D; ''Pathway enrichment based on text mining and its validation on carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism.''; OMICS, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC
  7. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC
  8. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC
  9. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC
  10. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  11. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC
  12. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC
  13. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC
  14. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC
  15. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC
  16. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC
  17. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC


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74495view15:53, 26 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71481view19:18, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
68579view23:05, 5 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
58852view23:34, 20 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
48157view18:52, 9 May 2012MaintBotUpdating from human to fix xrefs
40737view21:53, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38717view19:33, 23 September 2010AlexanderPico
34013view18:42, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32761view23:41, 3 September 2009MaintBotModified categories
30724view22:57, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
11-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB02152 (HMDB)
11-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06216 (HMDB)
13,14 dehydro RAMetabolite
13,14 dehydroretinalMetabolite
4-oxo-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB06285 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB06218 (HMDB)
9-cis-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB02369 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06217 (HMDB)
ADH4GeneProduct478487 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A1GeneProduct476323 (Entrez Gene)
ALDH1A2GeneProduct478319 (Entrez Gene)
AWAT2GeneProduct491936 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg564240 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg864241 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a3220 (Entrez Gene)
All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolMetaboliteHMDB11618 (HMDB)
Alpha-CaroteneMetaboliteHMDB03993 (HMDB)
AstaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02204 (HMDB)
BCMO1GeneProduct489695 (Entrez Gene)
BCO2GeneProduct479437 (Entrez Gene)
Bcmo153630 (Entrez Gene)
Beta-CryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02268 (HMDB)
BetacaroteneMetaboliteHMDB00561 (HMDB)
CRABP2GeneProduct612093 (Entrez Gene)
CanthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03154 (HMDB)
Cd36948 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a11592 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26b156603 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e11571 (Entrez Gene)
DHRS3GeneProduct487436 (Entrez Gene)
Lpl4023 (Entrez Gene)
LratENSG00000121207 (Ensembl)
LuteinMetaboliteHMDB03233 (HMDB)
LycopeneMetaboliteHMDB03000 (HMDB)
Npc1l129881 (Entrez Gene)
RARa5914 (Entrez Gene)
RARb5915 (Entrez Gene)
RARg5916 (Entrez Gene)
RBP2GeneProduct477089 (Entrez Gene)
RBP4GeneProduct477775 (Entrez Gene)
RBP7GeneProduct479602 (Entrez Gene)
RDH5GeneProduct481099 (Entrez Gene)
RETSATGeneProduct483083 (Entrez Gene)
RPE656121 (Entrez Gene)
RXRa6256 (Entrez Gene)
RXRb6257 (Entrez Gene)
RXRg6258 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh10157506 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh12145226 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh55959 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh850700 (Entrez Gene)
Retinal Vitamin A aldehydeMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
Retinol dehydrogenasesGeneProduct
Retinyl esterMetaboliteHMDB03598 (HMDB)
Rlbp16017 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1949 (Entrez Gene)
Sult1a16817 (Entrez Gene)
Sult2b16820 (Entrez Gene)
ViolaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03101 (HMDB)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB00876 (HMDB)
ZeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02789 (HMDB)
all-trans RetinalMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinoic acid Vitamin A acidMetaboliteHMDB01852 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
all-transe 4-oxo RAMetabolite
beta 10' apocorotenalMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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