Glycogen Metabolism (Bos taurus)

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1Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2ADegradationSynthesisPhosphorylase KinasePHKBPPP2R2CPPP2R3ACALM1PPP2R2AGYG1PYGBGlucose-1-phosphateGlucose-6-phosphatePGM1PPP2R3BGYS1cAMPGSK3APHKA2PHKG2Glucose 1-phosphateGlycogen (n+1)PPP2R1BPYGMPPP2R4PPP2R2BPYGLUGP2CALM2GSK3BPPP2R1AGlucoseGYS2GYG2PPP2R5CGlycogen (n+1)UGP2PHKG1PPP2R5AAGLPHKA1PPP2R5BCALM3GlycolysisGlycogenGlycogenPPP2CAPPP2CBPPP2R5DUDP-glucoseGBE1PPP2R5E


Description

Glycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal muscle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to maintain blood-glucose levels as required to meet the needs of the organism as a whole. In contrast, in muscle, these processes are regulated to meet the energy needs of the muscle itself.

Glycogen synthesis Glycogen synthesis is, unlike its breakdown, endergonic. This means that glycogen synthesis requires the input of energy. Energy for glycogen synthesis comes from UTP, which reacts with glucose-1-phosphate, forming UDP-glucose, in reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Glycogen is synthesized from monomers of UDP-glucose by the enzyme glycogen synthase, which progressively lengthens the glycogen chain with (a1->4) bonded glucose. As glycogen synthase can only lengthen an existing chain, the protein glycogenin is needed to initiate the synthesis of glycogen. The glycogen-branching enzyme, amylo (a1->4) to (a1->6) transglycosylase, catalyzes the transfer of a terminal fragment of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end to the C-6 hydroxyl group of a glucose residue deeper into the interior of the glycogen molecule. The branching enzyme can act upon only a branch having at least 11 residues, and the enzyme may transfer to the same glucose chain or adjacent glucose chains.

Glycogen degradation Glycogen degradation consists of three steps: (1) the release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen, (2) the remodeling of the glycogen substrate to permit further degradation, and (3) the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate for further metabolism.

Information partly derived from "Biochemistry" by Stryer and Wikipedia.

Comments

HomologyConvert 
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP500(63201) with a 91.0% conversion rate.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms

 

Bibliography

  1. Moses SW, Bashan N, Gutman A; ''Glycogen metabolism in the normal red blood cell.''; Blood, 1972 PubMed Europe PMC

History

View all...
CompareRevisionActionTimeUserComment
105990view11:51, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
80861view15:28, 30 June 2015Mkutmonhomology conversion
71850view20:12, 18 October 2013MaintBotremoved data source from nodes without identifier
67302view10:34, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'glycogen metabolic pathway' added !
63479view17:23, 10 May 2013MaintBotupdating gpml
40558view19:31, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35732view23:40, 12 February 2010AlexanderPico
33796view00:15, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
31706view11:51, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30642view22:30, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references

DataNodes

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AGLGeneProductENSBTAG00000006491 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:178
CALM1GeneProductHomologyConvert: Multiple homologues found: En:ENSBTAG00000001575;En:ENSBTAG00000025644;
CALM2GeneProductHomologyConvert: Multiple homologues found: En:ENSBTAG00000001575;En:ENSBTAG00000025644;
CALM3GeneProductHomologyConvert: Multiple homologues found: En:ENSBTAG00000001575;En:ENSBTAG00000025644;
GBE1GeneProductENSBTAG00000036262 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2632
GSK3AGeneProductENSBTAG00000020756 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2931
GSK3BGeneProductENSBTAG00000048057 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2932
GYG1GeneProductENSBTAG00000001721 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2992
GYG2GeneProductENSBTAG00000013341 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:8908
GYS1GeneProductENSBTAG00000039958 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2997
GYS2GeneProductENSBTAG00000013333 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:2998
Glucose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001586 (HMDB)
Glucose-1-phosphateMetabolite59-56-3 (CAS)
Glucose-6-phosphateMetabolite56-73-5 (CAS)
GlucoseMetabolite50-99-7 (CAS)
Glycogen (n+1)Metabolite9005-79-2 (CAS)
GlycogenMetabolite9005-79-2 (CAS)
GlycolysisPathwayWP534 (WikiPathways)
PGM1GeneProductENSBTAG00000019011 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5236
PHKA1GeneProductENSBTAG00000015848 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5255
PHKA2GeneProductENSBTAG00000015355 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5256
PHKBGeneProductENSBTAG00000004806 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5257
PHKG1GeneProductENSBTAG00000008195 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5260
PHKG2GeneProductENSBTAG00000003417 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5261
PPP2CAGeneProductENSBTAG00000000469 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5515
PPP2CBGeneProductENSBTAG00000009245 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5516
PPP2R1AGeneProductENSBTAG00000019851 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5518
PPP2R1BGeneProductENSBTAG00000020277 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5519
PPP2R2AGeneProductENSBTAG00000018317 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5520
PPP2R2BGeneProductENSBTAG00000001862 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5521
PPP2R2CGeneProductENSBTAG00000020598 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5522
PPP2R3AGeneProductENSBTAG00000023416 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5523
PPP2R3BGeneProductENSBTAG00000046338 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:28227
PPP2R4GeneProductENSBTAG00000001933 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5524
PPP2R5AGeneProductENSBTAG00000000754 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5525
PPP2R5BGeneProductENSBTAG00000007061 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5526
PPP2R5CGeneProductENSBTAG00000020192 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5527
PPP2R5DGeneProductENSBTAG00000005533 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5528
PPP2R5EGeneProductENSBTAG00000019784 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5529
PYGBGeneProductENSBTAG00000004625 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5834
PYGLGeneProductENSBTAG00000011494 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5836
PYGMGeneProductENSBTAG00000001032 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5837
UDP-glucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000286 (HMDB)
UGP2GeneProductENSBTAG00000000111 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7360
cAMPMetaboliteHMDB0000058 (HMDB)

Annotated Interactions

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