Synthesis and Degradation of Ketone Bodies (Bos taurus)

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1* pathway-regulated enzymes: HMG-CoA synthase, mt(HMG-CoA cycle)Acetoacetyl-CoAAcetyl-CoAOXCT1AcetoacetatePyruvate metabolism3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAAcetyl-CoA3-Hydroxy-butyrateGlycolysisFatty Acid beta-oxidationFatty Acid metabolismBDH1HMGCS2ACAT1HMGCLSterol biosynthesis


Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: Wikipedia


GenMAPP notes 
Ketogenesis (Human)
GenMAPP remarks 
Adapted from KEGG
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP311(68921) with a 100.0% conversion rate.

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



  1. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA; ''''; , PubMed Europe PMC


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80878view15:29, 30 June 2015Mkutmonhomology conversion
79149view06:17, 5 March 2015MaintBotUpdated conversion from Hs
67672view11:47, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'ketone bodies metabolic pathway' added !
63322view21:06, 9 May 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
48298view04:03, 18 May 2012KhanspersUpdating PubChem xrefs
48296view03:59, 18 May 2012MaintBotAutomatic update of PubChem xrefs
40503view19:28, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35387view09:28, 12 February 2010Thomasadded literature, fixed metabolite xrefs
35379view09:18, 12 February 2010ThomasModified description
35378view09:17, 12 February 2010ThomasModified description
33746view23:57, 8 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
30584view22:10, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAMetabolite1553-55-5 (CAS)
3-Hydroxy-butyrateMetabolite441 (PubChem-compound)
ACAT1GeneProductENSBTAG00000012885 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:38
AcetoacetateMetabolite6971017 (PubChem-compound)
Acetoacetyl-CoAMetabolite1420-36-6 (CAS)
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite72-89-9 (CAS)
BDH1GeneProductENSBTAG00000000448 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:622
Fatty Acid beta-oxidationPathwayWP143 (WikiPathways)
Fatty Acid metabolismPathway
GlycolysisPathwayWP534 (WikiPathways)
HMGCLGeneProductENSBTAG00000021832 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3155
HMGCS2GeneProductENSBTAG00000003898 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:3158
OXCT1GeneProductENSBTAG00000033186 (Ensembl) HomologyConvert: Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:5019
Pyruvate metabolismPathway
Sterol biosynthesisPathway

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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