G protein signaling pathways (WP931)

Pan troglodytes

G proteins, short for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. G proteins are so called because they function as "molecular switches". They alternate from 'inactive' guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to 'active' guanosine triphosphate (GTP), which is a binding state, and which proceeds to regulate downstream cell processes. Source: [[wikipedia:G_protein|Wikipedia]]
last edited


Thomas Kelder , Christine Chichester , and Eric Weitz

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Pathway Ontology: G protein mediated signaling pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier Comment
IP3 Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001143
Ca2+ Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000464
DAG Metabolite kegg.compound:C00165
cAMP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000058
PRKAR2B GeneProduct ncbigene:744011
GNG10 GeneProduct ncbigene:746978
PDE7B GeneProduct ncbigene:747541
ADCY3 GeneProduct ncbigene:459070
ADCY5 GeneProduct ncbigene:470905
GNG11 GeneProduct ncbigene:747185
AKAP8 GeneProduct ncbigene:748028
PPP3CC GeneProduct ncbigene:742406
AKAP1 GeneProduct ncbigene:455150
GNAS GeneProduct ncbigene:469986
PDE4A GeneProduct ncbigene:747380
PDE1B GeneProduct ncbigene:451962
GNAO1 GeneProduct ncbigene:450173
PDE4D GeneProduct ncbigene:461860
RRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:468955
GNA14 GeneProduct ncbigene:472961
AKAP5 GeneProduct ncbigene:467480
GNAZ GeneProduct ncbigene:458693
ADCY4 GeneProduct ncbigene:452819
PDE8B GeneProduct ncbigene:461796
NRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:742713
GNG13 GeneProduct ncbigene:749882
GNGT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:747170
GNB2 GeneProduct ncbigene:739897
PRKAR1A GeneProduct ncbigene:454845
PRKCH GeneProduct ncbigene:746068
PPP3CA GeneProduct ncbigene:461403
GNAI1 GeneProduct ncbigene:472425
CALM1 GeneProduct ncbigene:738819
PRKACB GeneProduct ncbigene:469367
KCNJ3 GeneProduct ncbigene:737029
AKAP7 GeneProduct ncbigene:462998
GNA13 GeneProduct ncbigene:454827
ADCY6 GeneProduct ncbigene:451866
AKAP3 GeneProduct ncbigene:466927
PDE1A GeneProduct ncbigene:459797
ADCY2 GeneProduct ncbigene:461715
GNAO1 GeneProduct ncbigene:450173
GNAL GeneProduct ncbigene:455285
PRKD1 GeneProduct ncbigene:452834
PRKD3 GeneProduct ncbigene:459158
ADCY9 GeneProduct ncbigene:453869
AKAP6 GeneProduct ncbigene:452846
ADCY1 GeneProduct ncbigene:463392
PPP3CC GeneProduct ncbigene:742406
AKAP13 GeneProduct ncbigene:743772
GNA15 GeneProduct ncbigene:744860
PDE8A GeneProduct ncbigene:453612
RHOA GeneProduct ncbigene:461014
AKAP4 GeneProduct ncbigene:465971
GNAI3 GeneProduct ncbigene:457093
AKAP11 GeneProduct ncbigene:740874
GNGT2 GeneProduct ncbigene:749133
PRKCQ GeneProduct ncbigene:450288
PDE4C GeneProduct ncbigene:748644
GNG8 GeneProduct ncbigene:745587
GNG7 GeneProduct ncbigene:744391
PRKCG GeneProduct ncbigene:456276
GNB1 GeneProduct ncbigene:469458
PRKCA GeneProduct ncbigene:454832
PRKCI GeneProduct ncbigene:450143
GNG5 GeneProduct ncbigene:740817
GNG3 GeneProduct ncbigene:740869
HRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:466302
PRKCZ GeneProduct ncbigene:743533
AKAP10 GeneProduct ncbigene:468376
GNAI1 GeneProduct ncbigene:472425
ADCY8 GeneProduct ncbigene:464400
ADCY7 GeneProduct ncbigene:473278
PRKACA GeneProduct ncbigene:455776
PDE4B GeneProduct ncbigene:456921
KRAS GeneProduct ncbigene:473387
PDE7A GeneProduct ncbigene:464213
AKAP9 GeneProduct ncbigene:472440
GNG4 GeneProduct ncbigene:743331
GNA12 GeneProduct ncbigene:463234
ITPR1 GeneProduct ncbigene:460134
PRKACG GeneProduct ncbigene:472944
SLC9A1 GeneProduct ncbigene:456669
GNAI2 GeneProduct ncbigene:744773


  1. G proteins: a family of signal transducers. Stryer L, Bourne HR. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1986;2:391–419. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. G protein pathways. Neves SR, Ram PT, Iyengar R. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1636–9. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia