Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (WP534)

Homo sapiens

Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO- and H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the ATP and NADH. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, and fatty acids. Description adapted from [ Wikipedia]. Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the [ CPTAC Assay Portal]
last edited


Kdahlquist , Susan Coort , Nick Fidelman , Martijn Van Iersel , Kristina Hanspers , Thomas Kelder , Jildau Bouwman , Alex Pico , Egon Willighagen , Martina Summer-Kutmon , The Herald , Mirk Baranzini , Denise Slenter , Mark A. Hershberger , Ambar21 , and Eric Weitz

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Homo sapiens




Pathway Ontology: citric acid cycle pathway gluconeogenesis pathway glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway


Label Type Compact Identifier Comment
Malate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000744
2P-Glycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000362
Oxaloacetate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000223
1,3BP-Glycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001270
Oxaloacetate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000223
Acetyl-CoA Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001206
3P-Glycerate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000807
Fructose-1,6BP Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001058
Lactate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000190
Glucose Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000122
Glyceraldehyde 3P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001112
Pyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000243
Pyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000243
Fructose 6P Metabolite chebi:61527
Malate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000744
Glucose Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000122
Aspartate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000191
Dihydroxyacetone-P Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0001473
P-enolpyruvate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000263
Aspartate Metabolite hmdb:HMDB0000191
Glucose-6P Metabolite chebi:75052 Glucose-6-Phosphate (2-)
Glucose-6P (open) Metabolite chebi:57584 D-Glucose-6-Phosphate (2-) open form
Fructose 6P (open) Metabolite chebi:57579 fructose-6-phosphate (2-) open form
TPI1 GeneProduct ncbigene:7167
PFKP GeneProduct ncbigene:5214
FBP1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2203
ALDOA GeneProduct ncbigene:226
LDHAL6B GeneProduct ncbigene:92483
PKM1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5315
ALDOC GeneProduct ncbigene:230
SLC2A2 GeneProduct ncbigene:6514
GOT1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2805
GAPDH GeneProduct ensembl:ENSG00000111640
DLD GeneProduct ncbigene:1738
PC GeneProduct ncbigene:5091
PFKM GeneProduct ncbigene:5213
GOT2 GeneProduct ncbigene:2806
PGK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5230
MDH1 GeneProduct ncbigene:4190
PKLR GeneProduct ncbigene:5313
SLC2A5 GeneProduct ncbigene:6518
PDHA1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5160
MDH2 GeneProduct ncbigene:4191
LDHA GeneProduct ncbigene:3939
HK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:3098
SLC2A1 GeneProduct ncbigene:6513
PGAM2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5224
DLAT GeneProduct ncbigene:1737
PFKL GeneProduct ncbigene:5211
ENO3 GeneProduct ncbigene:2027
ENO1 GeneProduct ncbigene:2023
LDHC GeneProduct ncbigene:3948
HK3 GeneProduct ncbigene:3101
LDHB GeneProduct ncbigene:3945
MPC2 GeneProduct ncbigene:25874
MPC1 GeneProduct ncbigene:51660
ENO2 GeneProduct ncbigene:2026
G6PC GeneProduct ncbigene:2538 Not present in brain and muscle, so those organs can not produce their own glucose in the gluconeogenesis pathway
HK2 GeneProduct ncbigene:3099
PCK1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5105
PGK2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5232
SLC2A4 GeneProduct ncbigene:6517
FBP2 GeneProduct ncbigene:8789
SLC2A3 GeneProduct ncbigene:6515
GCK GeneProduct ncbigene:2645 Gck is mainly active in liver
PGAM1 GeneProduct ncbigene:5223
PKM2 GeneProduct ncbigene:5315
ALDOB GeneProduct ncbigene:229
PGI GeneProduct eccode: phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI)
GPI GeneProduct ncbigene:2821 glucose-6-phosphate isomerase


  1. Bricker DK, Taylor EB, Schell JC, Orsak T, Boutron A, Chen Y-C, et al. A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans. Science. 2012 Jul 6;337(6090):96–100. PubMed Europe PMC Scholia