Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis (Homo sapiens)

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Curation Tags


Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the ATP and NADH.

Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, and fatty acids.

Description adapted from Wikipedia.

Ontology Tags



  1. Bricker DK, Taylor EB, Schell JC, Orsak T, Boutron A, Chen YC, Cox JE, Cardon CM, Van Vranken JG, Dephoure N, Redin C, Boudina S, Gygi SP, Brivet M, Thummel CS, Rutter J; ''A mitochondrial pyruvate carrier required for pyruvate uptake in yeast, Drosophila, and humans.''; Science, 2012 PubMed


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89372view06:22, 10 September 2016EgonwConverted to interactions to graphical lines in the legend.
78585view14:50, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
74524view21:59, 28 April 2014KhanspersModified description
74517view17:08, 28 April 2014The HeraldModified description
72028view12:56, 24 October 2013Mkutmonfixed unconnected lines
69349view18:52, 8 July 2013EgonwReplaced an HMDB identifier of a charged species (removed in 3.5) with the uncharged one.
68053view12:43, 29 June 2013EgonwAdded a link naar de WP325 pathway.
63202view20:54, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating gpml version
59845view20:38, 8 March 2013KhanspersAdded rectangles to pathway nodes
59844view20:15, 8 March 2013KhanspersUpdated db ref for lactate
59713view20:13, 6 March 2013MaintBotMinor layout fixes
59712view20:10, 6 March 2013MaintBotFixed compartments, layout and legend
59120view22:27, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
51732view08:36, 20 September 2012Thomasadded recently identified pyruvate transporters
45332view20:16, 7 October 2011AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway' added !
45331view20:15, 7 October 2011AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'gluconeogenesis pathway' added !
43850view07:58, 6 August 2011MartijnVanIerselchanged complex that is not a complex
41077view23:20, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38904view20:39, 24 September 2010Khanspers
38816view09:41, 24 September 2010Jildaumitochondrion
38815view09:10, 24 September 2010Thomasadded pathway links
37932view18:03, 20 July 2010Khansperschanged layout
37931view17:58, 20 July 2010KhanspersReverted to version '17:38, 24 June 2010' by Khanspers
37930view17:46, 20 July 2010KhanspersReverted to version '18:25, 10 December 2009' by Khanspers
37694view17:38, 24 June 2010Khansperschanged layout
37693view17:35, 24 June 2010Khansperstest
34457view18:25, 10 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
32460view17:25, 15 August 2009MaintBotFixed text labels
32143view13:59, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
28564view08:33, 13 February 2009MartijnVanIerselUpdated malate & lactate id's
21802view11:32, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis]] moved to [[Pathway:WP534]]: Moved to stable identifier
14350view14:33, 22 May 2008SusanAdding connections and metabolites
14342view13:40, 22 May 2008SusanAddind connectors
13074view11:13, 17 May 2008MaintBotautomated metabolite conversion
8096view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis]]: Renaming species
7670view16:08, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7369view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19482view22:17, 22 May 2007N.Fidelmanadded sticky edges
6329view22:17, 22 May 2007Kdahlquistadded sticky edges

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
1,3BP-GlycerateMetaboliteHMDB01270 (HMDB)
2P-GlycerateMetaboliteHMDB00362 (HMDB)
3P-GlycerateMetaboliteHMDB00807 (HMDB)
ALDOAGeneProduct226 (Entrez Gene)
ALDOBGeneProduct229 (Entrez Gene)
ALDOCGeneProduct230 (Entrez Gene)
Acetyl-CoAMetaboliteHMDB01206 (HMDB)
AspartateMetaboliteHMDB00191 (HMDB)
DLATGeneProduct1737 (Entrez Gene)
DLDGeneProduct1738 (Entrez Gene)
Dihydroxyacetone-PMetaboliteHMDB01473 (HMDB)
ENO1GeneProduct2023 (Entrez Gene)
ENO2GeneProduct2026 (Entrez Gene)
ENO3GeneProduct2027 (Entrez Gene)
FBP1GeneProduct2203 (Entrez Gene)
FBP2GeneProduct8789 (Entrez Gene)
Fructose 6PMetaboliteHMDB00124 (HMDB)
Fructose-1,6BPMetaboliteHMDB01058 (HMDB)
G6PCGeneProduct2538 (Entrez Gene) Not present in brain and muscle, so those organs can not produce their own glucose in the gluconeogenesis pathway
GAPDHGeneProductENSG00000111640 (Ensembl)
GAPDHSGeneProduct26330 (Entrez Gene)
GCKGeneProduct2645 (Entrez Gene) Gck is mainly active in liver
GOT1GeneProduct2805 (Entrez Gene)
GOT2GeneProduct2806 (Entrez Gene)
GPIGeneProduct2821 (Entrez Gene)
Glucose-6PMetaboliteHMDB01401 (HMDB)
GlucoseMetaboliteHMDB00122 (HMDB)
Glyceraldehyde 3PMetaboliteHMDB01112 (HMDB)
Glycogen metabolismPathwayWP500 (WikiPathways)
HK1GeneProduct3098 (Entrez Gene)
HK2GeneProduct3099 (Entrez Gene)
HK3GeneProduct3101 (Entrez Gene)
LDHAGeneProduct3939 (Entrez Gene)
LDHAL6BGeneProduct92483 (Entrez Gene)
LDHBGeneProduct3945 (Entrez Gene)
LDHCGeneProduct3948 (Entrez Gene)
LactateMetaboliteHMDB00190 (HMDB)
MDH1GeneProduct4190 (Entrez Gene)
MDH2GeneProduct4191 (Entrez Gene)
MPC1GeneProduct51660 (Entrez Gene)
MPC2GeneProduct25874 (Entrez Gene)
MalateMetaboliteHMDB00744 (HMDB)
OxaloacetateMetaboliteHMDB00223 (HMDB)
P-enolpyruvateMetaboliteHMDB00263 (HMDB)
PCGeneProduct5091 (Entrez Gene)
PCK1GeneProduct5105 (Entrez Gene)
PDHA1GeneProduct5160 (Entrez Gene)
PDHA2GeneProduct5161 (Entrez Gene)
PDHBGeneProduct5162 (Entrez Gene)
PDHXGeneProduct8050 (Entrez Gene)
PFKLGeneProduct5211 (Entrez Gene)
PFKMGeneProduct5213 (Entrez Gene)
PFKPGeneProduct5214 (Entrez Gene)
PGAM1GeneProduct5223 (Entrez Gene)
PGAM2GeneProduct5224 (Entrez Gene)
PGK1GeneProduct5230 (Entrez Gene)
PGK2GeneProduct5232 (Entrez Gene)
PKLRGeneProduct5313 (Entrez Gene)
PKM2GeneProduct5315 (Entrez Gene)
Pentose Phosphate PathwayPathwayWP134 (WikiPathways)
PyruvateMetaboliteHMDB00243 (HMDB)
SLC2A1GeneProduct6513 (Entrez Gene)
SLC2A2GeneProduct6514 (Entrez Gene)
SLC2A3GeneProduct6515 (Entrez Gene)
SLC2A4GeneProduct6517 (Entrez Gene)
SLC2A5GeneProduct6518 (Entrez Gene)
TCA CyclePathwayWP78 (WikiPathways)
TPI1GeneProduct7167 (Entrez Gene)
Triglyceride synthesisPathwayWP325 (WikiPathways)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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