Apoptosis (Homo sapiens)

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Apoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing characterize apoptosis in general. Mitochondria remain morphologically unchanged. In 1972 Kerr et al introduced the concept of apoptosis as a distinct form of "cell-death", and the mechanisms of various apoptotic pathways are still being revealed today.

Ontology Tags



  1. Bose I, Ghosh B; ''The p53-MDM2 network: from oscillations to apoptosis.''; J Biosci, 2007 PubMed
  2. Lakin ND, Jackson SP; ''Regulation of p53 in response to DNA damage.''; Oncogene, 1999 PubMed


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78808view09:26, 31 January 2015EgonwConnected dots.
72110view22:20, 24 October 2013AlexanderPicoCYCS alone encodes for Cytochrome C in humans; and SCAF11 is alias for CASP11
71386view18:41, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
70880view21:57, 12 September 2013MaintBotModified description
70863view13:55, 12 September 2013NunoModified description
70862view13:53, 12 September 2013NunoModified description
70861view13:51, 12 September 2013NunoModified description
63143view19:18, 8 May 2013MaintBotUpdating GPML version
56066view05:32, 1 January 2013AriuttaReverted to version '23:43, 1 March 2011' by Ariutta
56065view05:28, 1 January 2013AriuttaPeriodical save, work in progress
41184view23:43, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
39385view22:17, 19 November 2010AlexanderPicoupdated mito
38946view23:11, 24 September 2010Khanspers
38801view07:21, 24 September 2010Jildaumitochondrion
35092view12:54, 11 February 2010MartijnVanIersellit. ref. added
35090view12:40, 11 February 2010MartijnVanIerselAdded review on P53
34958view22:10, 8 February 2010KhanspersAdded xref for TP63
32014view13:21, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
29955view19:09, 15 June 2009GillespmModified description
22525view12:51, 14 November 2008MartijnVanIerselChanged title back to original
21213view11:31, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Apoptosis]] moved to [[Pathway:WP254]]: Moved to stable identifier
15853view07:57, 6 June 2008AngelikaModified description
14128view14:27, 21 May 2008SusanAdded connections and created groups
13018view11:06, 17 May 2008MaintBotSticky edges patch by Sjoerd
11590view07:36, 16 April 2008ThomasReverted edits by [[Special:Contributions/AlexanderPico|AlexanderPico]] ([[User_talk:AlexanderPico|Talk]]); changed back to last version by [[User:MaintBot|MaintBot]]
11588view23:54, 15 April 2008AlexanderPicoModified categories
7908view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Human:Apoptosis]] moved to [[Pathway:Homo sapiens:Apoptosis]]: Renaming species
7579view16:01, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7198view12:33, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
19383view22:17, 22 May 2007B.Lawlorgpml file for [[Human:Apoptosis]]
6295view22:17, 22 May 2007A.C.Zambongpml file for [[Human:Apoptosis]]

External references

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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
IRF3GeneProduct3661 (Entrez Gene)
CASP1GeneProduct834 (Entrez Gene)
TNFSF10GeneProduct8743 (Entrez Gene)
IGF1RGeneProduct3480 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRSF1AGeneProduct7132 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRSF21GeneProduct27242 (Entrez Gene)
TNFGeneProduct7124 (Entrez Gene)
PMAIP1GeneProduct5366 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRSF1BGeneProduct7133 (Entrez Gene)
DFFBGeneProduct1677 (Entrez Gene)
TRAF1GeneProduct7185 (Entrez Gene)
TRAF3GeneProduct7187 (Entrez Gene)
TRAF2GeneProduct7186 (Entrez Gene)
NFKBIEGeneProduct4794 (Entrez Gene)
MAP3K1GeneProduct4214 (Entrez Gene)
IRF7GeneProduct3665 (Entrez Gene)
MAP2K4GeneProduct6416 (Entrez Gene)
MCL1GeneProduct4170 (Entrez Gene)
MAPK10GeneProduct5602 (Entrez Gene)
TP63GeneProduct8626 (Entrez Gene)
FADDGeneProduct8772 (Entrez Gene)
HELLSGeneProduct3070 (Entrez Gene)
RIPK1GeneProduct8737 (Entrez Gene)
CASP11GeneProduct9169 (Entrez Gene)
BIRC3GeneProduct330 (Entrez Gene)
LTAGeneProduct4049 (Entrez Gene)
BIRC2GeneProduct329 (Entrez Gene)
CHUKGeneProduct1147 (Entrez Gene)
BIRC4GeneProduct331 (Entrez Gene)
IRF1GeneProduct3659 (Entrez Gene)
CASP6GeneProduct839 (Entrez Gene)
IRF5GeneProduct3663 (Entrez Gene)
CASP7GeneProduct840 (Entrez Gene)
CFLARGeneProduct8837 (Entrez Gene)
CASP3GeneProduct836 (Entrez Gene)
BOKGeneProduct666 (Entrez Gene)
CASP2GeneProduct835 (Entrez Gene)
IGF1GeneProduct3479 (Entrez Gene)
BCL2GeneProduct596 (Entrez Gene)
AKT1GeneProduct207 (Entrez Gene)
IKBKGGeneProduct8517 (Entrez Gene)
TRADDGeneProduct8717 (Entrez Gene)
FASGeneProduct355 (Entrez Gene)
DFFAGeneProduct1676 (Entrez Gene)
BCL2L1GeneProduct598 (Entrez Gene)
BADGeneProduct572 (Entrez Gene)
GZMBGeneProduct3002 (Entrez Gene)
CASP4GeneProduct837 (Entrez Gene)
PRF1GeneProduct5551 (Entrez Gene)
CASP8GeneProduct841 (Entrez Gene)
FASLGGeneProduct356 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRSF25GeneProduct8718 (Entrez Gene)
BAK1GeneProduct578 (Entrez Gene)
TNFRSF10BGeneProduct8795 (Entrez Gene)
BIDGeneProduct637 (Entrez Gene)
IKBKBGeneProduct3551 (Entrez Gene)
BAXGeneProduct581 (Entrez Gene)
NFKBIBGeneProduct4793 (Entrez Gene)
MYCGeneProduct4609 (Entrez Gene)
BIRC5GeneProduct332 (Entrez Gene)
TP53GeneProduct7157 (Entrez Gene)
IRF2GeneProduct3660 (Entrez Gene)
MDM2GeneProduct4193 (Entrez Gene)
IRF4GeneProduct3662 (Entrez Gene)
RELAGeneProduct5970 (Entrez Gene)
IRF6GeneProduct3664 (Entrez Gene)
NFKB1GeneProduct4790 (Entrez Gene)
CRADDGeneProduct8738 (Entrez Gene)
APAF1GeneProduct317 (Entrez Gene)
CDKN2AGeneProduct1029 (Entrez Gene)
CASP9GeneProduct842 (Entrez Gene)
BBC3GeneProduct27113 (Entrez Gene)
NFKBIAGeneProduct4792 (Entrez Gene)
DIABLOGeneProduct56616 (Entrez Gene)
JUNGeneProduct3725 (Entrez Gene)
BCL2L2GeneProduct599 (Entrez Gene)
BCL2L11GeneProduct10018 (Entrez Gene)
IGF2GeneProduct3481 (Entrez Gene)
HRKGeneProduct8739 (Entrez Gene)
PIK3R1GeneProduct5295 (Entrez Gene)
BNIP3LGeneProduct665 (Entrez Gene)
CYCSGeneProduct54205 (Entrez Gene)
CASP10GeneProduct843 (Entrez Gene)
TP73GeneProduct7161 (Entrez Gene)
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