Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production (Homo sapiens)

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Thyroxine hormone is produced in the thyroid gland from tyrosine and iodine. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary gland, which affects the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Iodine is captured by a hydrogen peroxide trap procuced by thyroid peroxidase and added to the 3' and 5' postitions of tyrosine. This can either be free tyrosine or a tyrosine residue in thyroglobuline. After the multiple iodination steps this produces T3 and T4.

The production of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4),tri-iodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 (rT3) is dependent on the organification of iodine into thyroglobulin (Tg), the major protein product of the thyroid (2). This involves thyroid peroxidase catalyzed iodination of tyrosine residues in Tg to form mono- and di-iodotyrosines and their subsequent crosslinking to form the iodothyronines T3 and T4.

Iodine 131 is an important radioactive fallout product. It was released in the atmosphere after nuclear tests and after nuclear incidents like at Tchernobyl and Fukushima. Since the iodine is concentrated in the thyroid glant as a substrate for the process described here non-radioactive iodine 127 is given as competitor to people exposed.

Ontology Terms



  1. Ron E, Lubin JH, Shore RE, Mabuchi K, Modan B, Pottern LM, Schneider AB, Tucker MA, Boice JD Jr; ''Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies.''; Radiat Res, 1995 PubMed
  2. Van Herle, A.J ., G. Vassart, J.E . Dumont; ''Control of thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion''; N. Engl. J. Med. 301:239, 1979 PubMed


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85189view15:40, 23 April 2016EgonwReplaced a mim-conversion with Arrow.
85188view15:38, 23 April 2016EgonwRemoved a "Label" label.
70955view21:25, 17 September 2013MaintBotadded xref for TG
70671view15:56, 24 August 2013EgonwAdded Pubchem-compound CIDs for the two 137I ions.
70030view01:57, 12 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
68909view17:30, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
54373view15:18, 28 November 2012Mkutmonadded some labels and ioniation error
54372view15:10, 28 November 2012EveloModified description
54371view15:07, 28 November 2012EveloModified description
54364view14:51, 28 November 2012Mkutmonupdated MIM interactions
44968view13:21, 6 October 2011Mkutmonconnected lines
44471view20:38, 14 September 2011MaintBotAdded category
42772view17:05, 29 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42771view16:40, 29 April 2011LribeiroModified description
42770view15:39, 29 April 2011LribeiroModified description
42756view18:43, 28 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42755view18:32, 28 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42754view18:22, 28 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42742view19:56, 26 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42741view19:46, 26 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42740view19:36, 26 April 2011LribeiroPeriodical save, work in progress
42413view09:03, 23 March 2011EveloConnected some hormone interaction
42299view20:50, 14 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42298view20:04, 14 March 2011EveloAdded iodide symporter
42297view19:54, 14 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42296view19:24, 14 March 2011EveloOntology Term : 'thyroid hormone signaling pathway' added !
42295view19:22, 14 March 2011EveloOntology Term : 'thyroid gland disease' added !
42287view13:15, 14 March 2011EveloAdded organs
42286view12:43, 14 March 2011MkutmonCorrection of the name
42281view22:04, 13 March 2011EveloModified description
42280view22:00, 13 March 2011EveloSpecify description
42279view21:54, 13 March 2011EveloAdded TPO
42278view21:44, 13 March 2011EveloAdded Thyroglobulin
42277view21:26, 13 March 2011EveloModified description
42276view21:17, 13 March 2011EveloModified description
42275view21:11, 13 March 2011EveloSpecify description
42274view21:01, 13 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42273view20:49, 13 March 2011EveloAdde tyrosine
42272view20:36, 13 March 2011EveloAdded T3 (from ChemSpider!)
42271view20:31, 13 March 2011EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
42270view20:26, 13 March 2011Evelofirst edit added thyroxine
42269view18:21, 13 March 2011AndraCreated stub
42268view18:14, 13 March 2011AndraNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
127 IodideMetaboliteHMDB12238 (HMDB)
131 IodideMetabolite167195 (PubChem-compound)
L-TyrosineMetaboliteHMDB00158 (HMDB)
SLC5A5GeneProduct6528 (Entrez Gene)
TRHGeneProduct7200 (Entrez Gene)
TSHGeneProduct1081 (Entrez Gene)
TSHRGeneProduct7253 (Entrez Gene)
Thyroidperoxidase GeneProduct7173 (Entrez Gene)
Thyroxine (T4)MetaboliteHMDB00248 (HMDB)
Thyruglobulin (Tg)GeneProduct7038 (Entrez Gene)
Triiodothyronine (T3)Metabolite5707 (Chemspider)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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